Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (formerly post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework)
Building on the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework was adopted by 196 nations on the 19th of December 2022, and it has been renamed to the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework. The framework comprises of 4 goals and 23 targets to be reached by 2030 to ultimately achieve the 2050 vision of living in harmony with nature.
The framework is built around a theory of change that recognizes that urgent policy action globally, regionally and nationally is required to transform economic, social and financial models so that the trends that have exacerbated biodiversity loss will stabilize by 2030.
The four Kunming-Montreal Global Goals for 2050
Goal A highlights the importance of “the integrity, connectivity and resilience of all ecosystems are maintained, enhanced, or restored, substantially increasing the area of natural ecosystems by 2050”. This comprises of halting human induced extinction and halting the extinction rate of native species to levels not exceeding environmental pressures as well as maintaining genetic diversity.
Goal B aims at ensuring “biodiversity is sustainably used and managed and nature’s contributions to people, including ecosystem functions and services, are valued, maintained and enhanced with those currently in decline being restored, supporting the achievement of sustainable development for the benefit of present and future generations by 2050”.
Goal C focuses on using genetic resources and digital sequence information to ensure that the “traditional knowledge associated with genetic resources is appropriately protected, thereby contributing to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, in accordance with internationally agreed access and benefit-sharing instruments”.
Goal D aims at “adequate means of implementation, including financial resources, capacity-building, technical and scientific cooperation, and access to and transfer of technology to fully implement the Kunming-Montreal global biodiversity framework”. This focuses on ensuring all parties, especially developing countries and small island developing States are able to participate in this transfer which allows nations to close the biodiversity financing gap of $700 billion annually.
Kunming-Montreal Intermediary Targets for 2030
In order to achieve the 2050 overarching goals, 23 Kunming-Montreal Intermediary Targets for 2030 were created to measure the progress towards the four overarching goals. The combined outcomes of the targets will make it possible to fulfill the vision of living in harmony with nature by 2050. Actions adopted to attain these goals should be consistent with the Convention on Biological Diversity and its Protocols, as well as any important international obligations, while also taking into account national circumstances, priorities, and socioeconomic situations.
The 23 targets are divided into three broad groups:
- Reducing the threats to biodiversity (targets 1 to 8)
Among these targets, the most notable one include the so-called ’30 by 30’ measure, which aim at the protection of 30% of land and marine ecosystems by 2030 (target 2). This is a major step forward in terms of biodiversity protection, given that as of today only 17% of terrestrial and 8% of marine areas are protected. This target has come to represent the environmental ambition of the Global Biodiversity Framework and COP15.
- Responding to population's needs for a sustainable and equitable resource distribution (targets 9 to 13)
These include the management and use of wild species (target 9), the responsible use of resources for agriculture (target 10), and ensuring a strong legal foundation and capacity building measures at all levels to ensure a fair and sustainable share of resources (target 13). By 2030, the framework aims to facilitate a large increase of the benefits shared. This addresses the inequality of biodiversity loss, another reason why the former Aichi Biodiversity Targets had failed, by which the parties that are most vulnerable to it are also the ones least capable of addressing the issue holistically.
- Requiring businesses to evaluate and report on their influence and dependence on biodiversity (targets 14 to 23)
These targets require businesses to evaluate and report on their influence and dependence on biodiversity, with the goal of integrating biodiversity issues into governmental policies. For instance, it calls for providing at least $20 billion per year by 2025 and $30 billion per year by 2030 to developing nations in order to finance the Global Biodiversity Framework (target 19). This category also calls for combining resources from the public and private sectors to fund biodiversity initiatives. Another target aims at reducing negative subsidies to biodiversity by at least $500 billion year by 2030 (target 18). This category of targets is also therefore fundamental to the achievement of the Global Biodiversity Targets, as it addresses the financing gap for biodiversity.